37.1.1 Where is schistosomiasis common in Ethiopia?
Schistosoma mansoni is widespread in several parts of Ethiopia, usually at an altitude of between 1,200 to 2,000 metres above sea level. Some of the common places include Ziway (Figure 37.2), Hawassa, Bishoftu, Wonji, Haromaya, Jimma, Bahir Dar and some places in Gojam, Dessie and Tigray. In many of these locations, more than 60% of schoolchildren are infected with Schistosoma mansoni. A high burden of the disease in children has severe adverse effects on their growth and performance at school.
Schistosoma haematobium is limited to some lowland areas, including the swampy land and floodplains of the Awash and Wabe Shebele valleys and along the Ethiopian–Sudan border.
37.1.2 Mode of transmission of schistosomiasis