14.4 Plans for other components
There are also physical and financial plans for urban water, rural and urban sanitation, and institutional WASH, which are summarised briefly below. (Some were also mentioned in Table 13.1.) Note that the OWNP financial requirements are estimated very precisely to the nearest dollar, but we have amended them here to give approximate figures in millions of dollars.
For urban water supply, activities are planned in 777 towns across the country to achieve 100% access during OWNP Phase I, which will require more than US$780 million.
Plans for improvements for institutions include the construction or rehabilitation of water supply facilities for 22,342 primary schools, 643 secondary schools and 7772 health centres/posts at an approximate cost of US$82 million and US$50 million respectively.
Sanitation improvements for institutions and communities include plans for some 36,712 facilities to be constructed or rehabilitated to meet OWNP targets, as shown in Table 14.3.
Public latrines (Figure 14.3) are open to anybody, in public places or in residential areas; typically there is a charge for each use. Users of public toilets generally feel less ‘ownership’ than users of communal latrines. Communal latrines are toilets shared by a group of households in a community. In some cases each household will have a key to one of the toilets within a block. This may be one toilet per household or one toilet for a group of households.
For rural and peri-urban sanitation, the estimated financial requirement is nearly US$400 million, of which approximately US$250 million is for hardware and construction activities and US$150 million for software activities.
The WASH club in a school arranged a health education session during break time to demonstrate handwashing. Is this software or hardware activity?
This is software activity because it focuses on knowledge, attitude and behaviour of people.
Urban sanitation activities consist of promoting on-site sanitation facilities by Health Extension Workers, the construction of public toilets, desludging equipment and drying beds. A total of US$96 million is required for desludging and public toilets in towns. More than 45% of this is for Addis Ababa alone.