3.2 Overview of bacterial vaccine-preventable diseases
Vaccine-preventable diseases are important causes of death in children. The causes, infectious agents, modes of transmission, symptoms, and methods of prevention, treatment and control of the most important bacterial vaccine-preventable diseases are summarised in Table 3.1. Note that some of the diseases shown in Table 3.1, such as diphtheria and pertussis, are no longer common in Ethiopia, or in other countries where vaccination in childhood against their infectious agents is widespread. Tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia are discussed in detail in later study sessions.
In this study session, we will describe tetanus and bacterial meningitis, so that you will be able to identify and refer cases of these diseases, and also know how you might help to prevent them in your community.
Table 3.1 Causes, transmission, symptoms, prevention and control methods for common bacterial vaccine-preventable diseases.
|Disease||Bacterial cause (scientific name)||Mode of transmission||Symptoms||Prevention and control methods|
|Respiratory by coughing or sneezing||Chronic cough, weight loss, fever, decreased appetite (more details are given in Study Session 13)||BCG vaccine, chemoprophylaxis, early diagnosis and treatment|
Corynebacterium diphtheriae and its toxin
|Respiratory by coughing or sneezing||Sore throat, loss of appetite, and slight fever||Diphtheria vaccine, combined with two or four other vaccines against pertussis, tetanus, BCG, etc.|
|Respiratory by coughing or sneezing||Runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, fever, and continuous cough, followed by vomiting||Pertussis vaccine, combined with two or four other vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, BCG, etc.|
|From soil into a wound or broken skin, through direct contact||Stiffness in the jaw and neck, with stomach and muscle spasms||Tetanus vaccine for children, combined with other vaccines, or given alone for women of childbearing age|
|Meningitis (infection of the brain or spinal cord)|
|Respiratory by coughing or sneezing||Fever, headache, neck stiffness, coma||Meningococcal vaccine and treatment by antibiotics|
|Respiratory by coughing or sneezing||Fever, headache, neck stiffness, coma||Treatment by antibiotics; a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) will be introduced to Ethiopia soon|
|Pneumonia (infection of the lungs)|
|Respiratory by coughing or sneezing||Cough, fast breathing/difficult breathing (more details are given in Study Session 35)||Treatment by antibiotics; a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) will be introduced to Ethiopia soon|
|Respiratory by coughing or sneezing||Cough, fast breathing/difficult breathing (more details are given in Study Session 35)||Treatment by antibiotics; Hib is part of the pentavalent vaccine|