Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 4

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering the following questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.

SAQ 4.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 4.1, 4.2 and 4.4)

Which of the following statements is false? In each case, explain what is incorrect.

A  Pneumonia and clouding of the cornea are two of the common complications of severe measles.

B  Measles is very rarely fatal.

C  The transmission of poliovirus cannot be prevented at the present time.

D  Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a rare complication of polio; most children infected with poliovirus show no symptoms.

E  Almost all adults infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) become virus carriers for the rest of their lives.

F  Jaundice is a common complication of hepatitis B disease.

Answer

A is true. Pneumonia and clouding of the cornea are two of the common complications of severe measles.

B is false. Measles can be fatal, particularly in malnourished children. Around 165,000 children died of measles worldwide in 2008.

C is false. The transmission of poliovirus is easily prevented by routine vaccination of all children. The aim is to eradicate polio totally from the world by this measure.

D is true. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a rare complication of polio; most children infected with poliovirus show no symptoms.

E is false. 90% of adults infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) will get rid of the virus from their bodies within six months.

F is true. Jaundice is a common complication of hepatitis B disease.

SAQ 4.2 (tests Learning Outcomes 4.2 and 4.3)

You see a child in your village who has a rash all over his body, which developed three days ago; before that he was ill with fever and diarrhoea, his nose was running and his eyes were red. Now he has an ear infection, with pus coming out of his ear. What is the most likely cause of his illness? What do you do in response?

Answer

The child is showing the characteristic signs of measles, and in his case the ear infection shows the illness is severe. For severe measles cases, give the child the first dose of vitamin A according to his age, and refer him immediately to the nearest health centre. He may need antibiotics to treat the ear infection and prevent other complications.

SAQ 4.3 (tests Learning Outcome 4.2)

In Table 4.2 below, write the mode of transmission and the method of prevention against each of the viral diseases in the first column.

Table 4.2  Modes of transmission and prevention of three common viral diseases.

DiseaseMode of transmissionPrevention
Measles
Polio
Hepatitis B

Answer

The completed version of Table 4.2 is shown below.

Table 4.2  Modes of transmission and prevention of three common viral diseases.

DiseaseMode of transmissionPrevention
MeaslesRespiratory RouteMeasles vaccination and vitamin A drops
PolioFaeco-oral routeOral polio vaccination
Hepatitis BUnprotected sex or other contact with infected blood or body fluidsHepatitis B vaccination

Summary of Study Session 4