5.5 Malaria transmitting vectors in Ethiopia
The scientific names of the mosquitoes that transmit malaria parasites are often abbreviated to An. arabiensis, An. pharoensis, etc.
You have now learned that malaria is transmitted from an infected person to another person by mosquitoes. However, not all mosquitoes carry malaria. There might be mosquitoes biting people in your village, but they may not be the ones that transmit the infection. The mosquitoes that transmit malaria belong to a group of mosquitoes called Anopheles. However, not all Anopheles mosquitoes are vectors of malaria. For example there are more than 40 species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Ethiopia, but only four species of Anopheles mosquitoes carry malaria. The scientific names of these mosquitoes are:
- Anopheles arabiensis
- Anopheles pharoensis
- Anopheles funestus
- Anopheles nili.
An. arabiensis is the most important transmitter of malaria in Ethiopia and is responsible for more than 95% of transmissions. It is found everywhere in Ethiopia. The other three are secondary vectors of very minor importance.
Distinguishing the above four species of Anopheles from other Anopheles mosquitoes is not your responsibility and will not be part of this training. However, it is important for you to distinguish Anopheles mosquitoes in general from other mosquitoes at their larval stage. You will see the importance of this knowledge when you learn about vector control in Study Session 9.
5.4.4 Adult mosquitoes
5.6 Distinguishing Anopheles mosquitoes from other types