9.2 Larval control for malaria prevention
Mosquito species differ in their preferences for breeding habitats. The species that mainly transmit malaria in Ethiopia (Anopheles arabiensis) breed in clean and muddy water collections that are either man-made or naturally-occurring near houses; they do not breed in polluted water like in sanitation systems. Once the breeding sites are known, appropriate control measures may be simple and inexpensive. Most breeding sites in and near houses are easy to identify and simple methods are available to eliminate them. Community members can and should take action against any breeding by mosquitoes observed on or near their premises.
Larval control may be the only effective approach when mosquitoes bite outdoors and do not enter houses to feed or rest, or when the mosquitoes are not susceptible to the available insecticides. Insecticide resistance of malaria vectors is particularly important in the Ethiopian situation. An important additional advantage of larval control is that some of the measures provide long-lasting protection.