Summary of Study Session 13

  1. Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also known as TB bacteria.
  2. Pulmonary TB affecting the lungs is the commonest type of TB; extra-pulmonary TB arises when TB affects other organs of the body.
  3. TB is a major health problem in Ethiopia and around the world. The Global STOP TB strategy, including DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course) is designed to reduce the level of TB infections and transmission.
  4. Transmission of TB occurs mainly by inhalation of infectious droplets produced when an untreated person with TB coughs, sneezes, sings or talks.
  5. Identification of the most infectious cases of tuberculosis (sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases) by screening sputum smears is crucial to TB control.
  6. Three sputum specimens are sent in labelled containers to the laboratory for sputum examination. Tell the TB suspect when to come back for the result.
  7. If a person who is smear-positive fails to come back for the report, locate and inform him or her about their TB status as soon as possible. Treatment needs to be started immediately to prevent the spread of TB.

13.5.2  Case finding through confirmation of a TB suspect by sputum examination

Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 13