Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 13
Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.
SAQ 13.1 (tests Learning Outcome 13.1)
In lay person’s language, how would you describe TB and its symptoms to a person who comes to your Health Post? Explain why it is important to follow the treatment exactly.
In language a lay person could understand, you would say first that TB is an infectious disease caused by TB bacteria (germs). It is a disease that normally affects the lungs, though it can infect other parts of the body too. The symptoms of TB are a persistent cough, weight loss, chest pain, tiredness, difficulty breathing, sweating, fever and sometimes the spitting up of blood. When someone with TB coughs or sneezes they breathe out droplets that contain the bacteria. If these droplets are breathed in by a healthy person, they could also become infected with TB.
Most people infected with TB bacteria do not go on to develop TB. Instead the bacteria remain ‘asleep’ in their bodies, and in some cases they may even clear the bacteria completely. However, those who do develop an active infection will die in a few years if not treated. The treatment of TB takes many months and it is important that those undergoing treatment follow the treatment exactly. This ensures a good outcome and also prevents the development of drug-resistant strains of TB which are more difficult to cure.
Tell the person that if he or she suspects they or someone in their community may be infected, then please seek medical treatment at the nearest health facility. Children and those with other conditions, such as HIV, are very susceptible to TB infection.
SAQ 13.2 (tests Learning Outcomes 13.1 and 13.2)
What are the global targets for TB case finding and treatment?
The global targets for TB case finding and treatment are to detect at least 70% of the smear-positive cases and cure at least 85% of the detected cases.
SAQ 13.3 (tests Learning Outcome 13.2)
If the population of a woreda in Tigray is 200,000 people, what is the estimated number of new smear-positive TB cases? (Remember in Ethiopia as a whole, the estimated number of new smear-positive TB cases is 163/100,000 annually.)
326 new smear-positive TB cases are expected in 200,000 people. (Remember that in Ethiopia as a whole, in 100,000 people a total of 163 new smear-positive cases are expected every year. Therefore, in 200,000 people you would expect 2 × 163 = 326 cases).
SAQ 13.4 (tests Learning Outcomes 13.1 and 13.3)
What are the components of the Global STOP TB Strategy?
The main features of the Global STOP-TB Strategy are practising and scaling-up DOTS, addressing MDR-TB and TB/HIV co-infections, supporting the strengthening of the health system, and engagement with stakeholders such as public and private care-providers and the affected communities to raise detection, treatment and adherence to high standards. In addition, the strategy enables and promotes research into new drugs, diagnostic tools and vaccines.
SAQ 13.5 (tests Learning Outcome 13.4)
How is TB spread?
When an infectious adult coughs, sneezes, sings or talks, the tubercle bacteria may be expelled into the air in the form of droplet nuclei. Transmission of the TB bacteria occurs when a person in close contact inhales (breathes in) the droplet nuclei.
SAQ 13.6 (tests Learning Outcome 13.5)
How does a health worker identify TB suspects from among all the persons in the community, or those visiting a health facility?
Case finding strategies in these circumstances are intensified TB-screening in high-risk groups and screening of people who have been in close contact with them.
SAQ 13.7 (tests Learning Outcomes 13.1 and 13.5)
A person with smear-positive pulmonary TB lives with family members in your community. Whom among the family members are you going to screen for TB by sending sputum specimens to the laboratory?
The following people should be screened for TB in the family of someone with active TB:
- Children less than five years old
- Anyone who is HIV-positive
- All family members (children older than five years and adult) who have any symptoms of TB.
Summary of Study Session 13