Animals at the extremes: Polar biology
Animals at the extremes: Polar biology

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.


Donahue, S. W., Vaughan, M. R., Demers, L. M. and Donahue, H. J. (2003) Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 408, 295–301.
Groscolas, R. (1982) Changes in plasma lipids during breeding, molting and starvation in male and female emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri).Physiological Zoology, 55, 45–55.
Groscolas, R. (1986) Changes in body mass, body temperature and plasma fuel levels during the natural breeding fast in male and female emperor penguinsAptenodytes forsteri. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 156B, 521–527.
Johnston, I. A. (1989) Antarctic fish muscles – structure, function and physiology. Antarctic Science, 1, 97–108.
Larsen, T. S., Nilsson, N. Ö. and Blix, A. S. (1985) Seasonal changes in lipogenesis and lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from Svalbard and Norwegian reindeer. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 123, 97–104.
Lindgård, K. and Stokkan, K.-A. (1989) Daylength control of food intake and body weight in Svalbard ptarmigan Lagopus mutus hyperboreus. Ornis Scandinavica, 20, 176–180.
Nelson, R. A., Beck, T. D. I. and Steiger, D. L. (1984) Ratio of serum urea to serum creatinine in wild black bears. Science, 226, 841–842.
Pond, C. M. and Mattacks, C. A. (1985) Body mass and natural diet as determinants of the number and volume of adipocytes in eutherian mammals.Journal of Morphology, 185, 183–193.
Pond, C. M. and Ramsay, M. A. (1992) Allometry of the distribution of adipose tissue in Carnivora. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70, 342–347.
Ramsay, M. A., Nelson, R. A. and Stirling, I. (1991) Seasonal changes in the ratio of serum urea to creatine in feeding and fasting polar bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69, 298–302.
Schekkerman, H., Tulp, I., Piersma, T. and Visser, G. H. (2003) Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds. Oecologia,134, 332–342.
Scholander, P. F, Van Dam, L., Kanwisher, J. W., Hammel, H. T. and Gordon, M. S. (1957) Supercooling and osmoregulation in arctic fish. Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology, 49, 5–24.
Stokkan, K.-A., Sharp, P. J. and Unander, S. (1986) The annual breeding cycle of the high-arctic Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 61, 446–451.

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371