The oceans
The oceans

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Free course

The oceans

Acknowledgements

This course was written by Mark Brandon [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] .

Except for third-party materials and otherwise stated in the acknowledgements section, this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

Course image: Joshua Conley in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Figure 8: courtesy of Mark Brandon

Figure 9: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/

Figure 10(a) and 10(b): from: Tait, R.V. (1968), Elements of Marine Ecology, Butterworth Heinemann

Figure 13 and 14: from Schlitzer, R. (2000) 'Electronic atlas of WOCE hydrographic and tracer data now available', Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, vol. 81, no. 5, p. 45

Figure 16: courtesy of Mark Brandon

Figure 18: from Perry, A.H. and Walker, J.M. (1977) The Ocean-Atmosphere System, Longman

Figure 20: adapted from Emery, W.J. and Meinke, J. (1986) 'Global water masses - summary and review', Oceanologica Acta, vol. 9, Copyright © 1986, Elsevier Science

Figure 21: courtesy of Mark Brandon

Figure 22: adapted from: MacDonald et al. (2005) 'Recent climate change in the Arctic', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 342, no. 1-3, 15 April 2005, Elsevier Inc.

Video 1: Using Google Earth to look at the ocean with Mark Brandon : © content: Google Earth/Data SIO, NOAA, U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO. https://www.google.co.uk/intl/en_uk/earth/

Video 2: Using Google Earth with a file containing information in layers with Mark Brandon © content: Google Earth/Data SIO, NOAA, U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO. https://www.google.co.uk/intl/en_uk/earth/

Video 3: United States National Oceanograph and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) http://www.noaa.gov/

Video 4: Demonstration on how to use layers with Google Earth with Mark Brandon. © content: Google Earth/Data SIO, NOAA, U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO. https://www.google.co.uk/intl/en_uk/earth/

Video 5: extract (including transcript) from BBC Planet Earth Episode 11 'Ocean Deep' © BBC

Video 6: extract (including transcript) from BBC Life in the Freezer, Episode 4 © BBC

Video 7: Mark Brandon for The Open University using data from NASA

Video 8: Mark Brandon for The Open University using data from NASA

Video 9: The international Arctic Research Center University of Alaska Fairbanks

Video 10: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

Video 11: NASA http://www.nasa.gov/

Video 12: NASA http://www.nasa.gov/

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

Don't miss out:

If reading this text has inspired you to learn more, you may be interested in joining the millions of people who discover our free learning resources and qualifications by visiting The Open University - www.open.edu/ openlearn/ free-courses

S206_1

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371