5 Resistance training for endurance
Whether someone is climbing, running, swimming or playing sport for an extended period, muscular strength endurance (MSE) is required for muscles to continually contract so as to provide propulsion and power, and maintain technique. Therefore, resistance training to develop muscular strength endurance may enhance the performance of endurance athletes. To develop muscular endurance, resistance training should be performed using low intensities, high repetitions (volume) and limited rest to create the repetitive strain on the muscles (see Table 4). For an athlete who is new to resistance exercise, one set of exercises per muscle group should create beneficial muscular adaptations. However, 2–3 sets of repetitions per exercise is recommended for more experienced athletes.
Table 4 Training principle recommendations for training goals
(% of 1RM)
|Maximal strength||core exercises||≥85||≤6||2–6||2–5 min|
|Muscular endurance||≤67||≥12||2–3||≤30 s|
For more advanced endurance athletes, the volume of endurance training completed through running, cycling or swimming should create sufficient positive endurance adaptations in the muscle. Therefore, instead of using endurance volumes and intensities, resistance training can focus on developing muscular strength, which allows muscles to function more effectively, to expend less energy in performing the same action and to become more resilient to injury (Blagrove, 2015). Incorporating strength training into an endurance athlete’s programme should enhance the athlete’s exercise economy and anaerobic power, and reduce their risk of injury (Blagrove, 2015; Denadai et al., 2017). However, when combining endurance and strength training in a programme, more care is needed to control programming variables (frequency, intensity, time and rest) to minimise the risk of overtraining and to maximise the success of the programme.