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Exploring languages and cultures
Exploring languages and cultures

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This free course was written by María Fernández-Toro.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated in the acknowledgements section, this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] .

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:


Course image: © V. Jung/F1 Online/Corbis

Figure 1 © Silvia Bogdanski/Thinkstock

Figure 2 © Professor Mike Byram.

Figure 3 © Paul Thompson Images/Alamy

Figure 4 © Nigel White

Figure 5 © Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images

Figure 6 © Guidance Marine Expert Positioning Technology

Figure 7 © Cartoon Stock

Figure 8 © Guidance Navigation Ltd

Figure 9 © Clear Focus

Figure 12 © Bill Alder

Figure 13 © Ann Alder

Figure 14 ©

Figure 15 © Richard Gardner/REX/Shutterstock


‘Dave tries out his French’, ‘The missing word’, and ‘Using the language gap’ © BBC


Reading 1: extract from Evans, S. (2012) ‘Frugality rules at German dinner parties’, BBC News Magazine [Online].

Activity 11: definition of ‘lingua franca’ adapted from Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 2013.

Activity 25: Version 1 from Wikipedia.

Reading 7: extract from Bass, S. (2013) ‘Transcreation for marketing: why you need it more than translation!’, ALT TranslationWireBlog, 14 August [Blog]. Available at

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

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