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The search for water on Mars
The search for water on Mars

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This free course was written by members of AstrobiologyOU (Vic Pearson, Julia Semprich, Susanne Schwenzer and Stuart Turner) in collaboration with the OpenLearn team (Sofia Maruzza and Sudesh Loi). With thanks to Claire Batty for critical reading.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this free course:


Course image: ©ESA/DLR/FU Berlin licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ igo/

Figure 1a: NASA content/ blue-marble-image-of-the-earth-from-apollo-17

Figure 1b: Viking Project, USGS, NASA apod/ ap140511.html

Figure 2: Chris Schur apod/ ap060419.html

Figure 3: © European Space Agency Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data SystemDollfus, Audouin 2004ESASP1278..115D/ 0000124.000.html

Figure 4: NASA publication MARTE/ opposizione7/ opposizione7_big5.html

Figure 5: Ron Wayman of Tampa vision/ universe/ watchtheskies/ 18jun_approachingmars.html

Figures 6, 7 and 9: courtesy © Susanne Schwenzer

Figure 13: NASA/JPL catalog/ PIA02979

Figure 14: NASA jpeg/ PIA15090.jpg

Figure 15/16: NASA wiki/ File:Gusev_-_Ma%27adim_Vallis.jpg

Figure 17: NASA imgcat/ hires/ vl2_p21873.jpg

Figure 18: image courtesy: Andy Tindle

Figure 19: NASA/JPL PIA17953.jpg (607×456) (

Figure 20: Photo © Allan Treiman, Lunar and Planetary Institute lpi/ meteorites/ ahtts36.html

Figure 21: NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center science/ treiman/ greatdesert/ workshop/ marsmaps1/ marsmaps1_imgs/ mola_color_2.jpg

Figure 22 NASA image-feature/ nasas-first-rover-on-the-red-planet

Figure 23: NASA MPF/ ops/ NEcolor_annot.jpg

Figure 24: NASA catalog/ PIA01133

Figure 25: from: Mars Global Data Sets: TES Silicates and high-Silicon Glass ( TES Silicate/High-Silicon Glass Abundance Bandfield, J. L., Global mineral distributions on Mars, J. Geophys Res.107, 2002. Image: NASA/ASU

Figure 26: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU images/ a-water-ice-map-for-mars

Figure 27: NASA/JPL/Los Alamos National Laboratory odyssey/ gallery/ science/ PIA04907.html

Figure 28: NASA MGS MOLA Science Team ESA_Multimedia/ Images/ 2019/ 10/ Nirgal_Vallis_in_context

Figure 29: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin ESA_Multimedia/ Images/ 2019/ 10/

Figure 30: ESA ESA - Beagle 2 lander

Figure 31: NASA/JPL catalog/ PIA04980NASA/JPL/Cornell

Figure 32: NASA/JPL/Cornell Catalog Page for PIA05152 (

Figure 33: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell/USGS resources/ 6944/ martian-blueberries/

Figure 34: NASA/JPL images/ content/ 176933main_pia09403.jpg

Figure 35: NASA/JPL mission_pages/ mer/ multimedia/ pia15033.html

Figure 36: NASA resources/ 6355/ pillinger-point-overlooking-endeavour-crater-on-mars/

Figure 37: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona resources/ 7744/ light-toned-layered-rock-outcrop-in-ladon-valles/

Figure 38: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona resources/ 7729/ sedimentary-rock-layers-on-a-crater-floor/ ?site=msl

Figure 39: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona resources/ 6087/ a-new-gully-channel-in-terra-sirenum-mars/

Figure 40: NASA archive/ PIA23238.gif

Figure 41: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/JHU-APL/Purdue/USGS resources/ 24680/ jezero-crater-minerals/

Figure 42: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/UT resources/ 3244/ north-polar-cap-cross-section-annotated/

Figure 43: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Rome/ASI/PSI resources/ radargrams-indicating-ice-rich-subsurface-deposit/

Figure 44: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Texas A&M University mission_pages/ phoenix/ images/ press/ sol_020_024_change_dodo_v2.html

Figure 45: NASA/JPL-Caltech resources/ 22498/ curiosity-sees-more-clouds-over-gale-crater/

Figure 46: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS catalog/ PIA16156

Figure 47: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS resources/ 6856/ inclined-martian-sandstone-beds-near-kimberley/ ?site=msl

Figure 48: NASA/JPL-Caltech resources/ 8194/ mudstone-mineralogy-from-curiositys-chemin-2013-to-2016/ ?site=msl

Figure 49: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS resources/ 7057/ prominent-veins-at-garden-city-on-mount-sharp-mars/ ?site=msl

Figure 50: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/LANL/CNES/IRAP/LPGNantes/CNRS/IAS resources/ 8200/ boron-sodium-and-chlorine-in-mineral-vein-diyogha/ ?site=msl

Figure 51: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS resources/ 8231/ mars-rovers-mastcam-view-of-possible-mud-cracks/ ?site=msl

Figure 52: NASA maps/ location/ ?mission=Curiosity

Figure 53: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona resources/ 25705/ the-road-ahead-for-perseverance/

Figure 54: European Space Agency (ESA) Science_Exploration/ Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/ Exploration/ ExoMars/ ESA_s_Mars_rover_has_a_name_Rosalind_Franklin


Videos 1 and 2: courtesy of Professor Roy Tasker, University of Western Sydney

Video 3: ASU Knowledge Enterprise Development (KED), Michael Northrop resources/ 24655/ sutton-island-model-of-drying-lakes/ ?site=msl

Video 4: Tracking the History of Water on Mars. Courtesy of ESA - European Space Agency

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