The search for water on Mars
The search for water on Mars

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The search for water on Mars

Acknowledgements

This free course was written by members of AstrobiologyOU (Vic Pearson, Julia Semprich, Susanne Schwenzer and Stuart Turner) in collaboration with the OpenLearn team (Sofia Maruzza and Sudesh Loi). With thanks to Claire Batty for critical reading.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this free course:

Figures

Course image: ©ESA/DLR/FU Berlin https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ igo/

Figure 1a: NASA https://www.nasa.gov/ content/ blue-marble-image-of-the-earth-from-apollo-17

Figure 1b: Viking Project, USGS, NASA https://apod.nasa.gov/ apod/ ap140511.html

Figure 2: Chris Schur https://apod.nasa.gov/ apod/ ap060419.html

Figure 3: © European Space Agency Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data SystemDollfus, Audouin http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/ 2004ESASP1278..115D/ 0000124.000.html

Figure 4: NASA publication http://www.brera.inaf.it/ MARTE/ opposizione7/ opposizione7_big5.html

Figure 5: Ron Wayman of Tampa https://www.nasa.gov/ vision/ universe/ watchtheskies/ 18jun_approachingmars.html

Figures 6, 7 and 9: courtesy © Susanne Schwenzer

Figure 13: NASA/JPL https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/ catalog/ PIA02979

Figure 14: NASA https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/ jpeg/ PIA15090.jpg

Figure 15/16: NASA https://commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Gusev_-_Ma%27adim_Vallis.jpg

Figure 17: NASA https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ imgcat/ hires/ vl2_p21873.jpg

Figure 18: image courtesy: Andy Tindle

Figure 19: NASA/JPL PIA17953.jpg (607×456) (nasa.gov)

Figure 20: Photo © Allan Treiman, Lunar and Planetary Institute https://www.lpi.usra.edu/ lpi/ meteorites/ ahtts36.html

Figure 21: NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center https://www.lpi.usra.edu/ science/ treiman/ greatdesert/ workshop/ marsmaps1/ marsmaps1_imgs/ mola_color_2.jpg

Figure 22 NASA https://www.nasa.gov/ image-feature/ nasas-first-rover-on-the-red-planet

Figure 23: NASA https://mars.nasa.gov/ MPF/ ops/ NEcolor_annot.jpg

Figure 24: NASA https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/ catalog/ PIA01133

Figure 25: from: Mars Global Data Sets: TES Silicates and high-Silicon Glass (asu.edu) TES Silicate/High-Silicon Glass Abundance Bandfield, J. L., Global mineral distributions on Mars, J. Geophys Res.107, 2002. Image: NASA/ASU

Figure 26: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ images/ a-water-ice-map-for-mars

Figure 27: NASA/JPL/Los Alamos National Laboratory https://mars.nasa.gov/ odyssey/ gallery/ science/ PIA04907.html

Figure 28: NASA MGS MOLA Science Team http://www.esa.int/ ESA_Multimedia/ Images/ 2019/ 10/ Nirgal_Vallis_in_context

Figure 29: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin https://www.esa.int/ ESA_Multimedia/ Images/ 2019/ 10/ Perspective_view_of_Nirgal_Vallis#.YFsc2RT-yzM.link

Figure 30: ESA ESA - Beagle 2 lander

Figure 31: NASA/JPL https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/ catalog/ PIA04980NASA/JPL/Cornell

Figure 32: NASA/JPL/Cornell Catalog Page for PIA05152 (nasa.gov)

Figure 33: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell/USGS https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 6944/ martian-blueberries/

Figure 34: NASA/JPL https://www.nasa.gov/ images/ content/ 176933main_pia09403.jpg

Figure 35: NASA/JPL https://www.nasa.gov/ mission_pages/ mer/ multimedia/ pia15033.html

Figure 36: NASA https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 6355/ pillinger-point-overlooking-endeavour-crater-on-mars/

Figure 37: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 7744/ light-toned-layered-rock-outcrop-in-ladon-valles/

Figure 38: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 7729/ sedimentary-rock-layers-on-a-crater-floor/ ?site=msl

Figure 39: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 6087/ a-new-gully-channel-in-terra-sirenum-mars/

Figure 40: NASA https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/ archive/ PIA23238.gif

Figure 41: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/JHU-APL/Purdue/USGS https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 24680/ jezero-crater-minerals/

Figure 42: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/UT https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 3244/ north-polar-cap-cross-section-annotated/

Figure 43: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Rome/ASI/PSI https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ radargrams-indicating-ice-rich-subsurface-deposit/

Figure 44: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Texas A&M University https://www.nasa.gov/ mission_pages/ phoenix/ images/ press/ sol_020_024_change_dodo_v2.html

Figure 45: NASA/JPL-Caltech https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 22498/ curiosity-sees-more-clouds-over-gale-crater/

Figure 46: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/ catalog/ PIA16156

Figure 47: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 6856/ inclined-martian-sandstone-beds-near-kimberley/ ?site=msl

Figure 48: NASA/JPL-Caltech https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 8194/ mudstone-mineralogy-from-curiositys-chemin-2013-to-2016/ ?site=msl

Figure 49: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 7057/ prominent-veins-at-garden-city-on-mount-sharp-mars/ ?site=msl

Figure 50: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/LANL/CNES/IRAP/LPGNantes/CNRS/IAS https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 8200/ boron-sodium-and-chlorine-in-mineral-vein-diyogha/ ?site=msl

Figure 51: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 8231/ mars-rovers-mastcam-view-of-possible-mud-cracks/ ?site=msl

Figure 52: NASA https://mars.nasa.gov/ maps/ location/ ?mission=Curiosity

Figure 53: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 25705/ the-road-ahead-for-perseverance/

Figure 54: European Space Agency (ESA) https://www.esa.int/ Science_Exploration/ Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/ Exploration/ ExoMars/ ESA_s_Mars_rover_has_a_name_Rosalind_Franklin

Video

Videos 1 and 2: courtesy of Professor Roy Tasker, University of Western Sydney

Video 3: ASU Knowledge Enterprise Development (KED), Michael Northrop https://mars.nasa.gov/ resources/ 24655/ sutton-island-model-of-drying-lakes/ ?site=msl

Video 4: Tracking the History of Water on Mars. Courtesy of ESA - European Space Agency

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

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