Skip to content
Skip to main content

About this free course

Become an OU student

Download this course

Share this free course

Animals at the extremes: hibernation and torpor
Animals at the extremes: hibernation and torpor

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.


Azzam, N. A., Hallenbeck, J. M. and Kachar, B. (2000) Membrane changes during hibernation. Nature, 407, 317–318.
Boutilier, R. G. and St-Pierre, J. (2002) Adaptive plasticity of skeletal muscle energetics in hibernating frogs: mitochondrial proton leak during metabolic depression. Journal of Experimental Biology, 205, 2287–2296.
Buck, C. L. and Barnes, B. M. (2000) Effects of ambient temperature on metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and torpor in an arctic hibernator. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 279, R255–R262.
Florant, G. L. and Heller, H. C. (1977) CNS regulation of body temperature in euthermic and hibernating marmots (Marmota flaviventris). American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 232, R203–R208.
Frerichs, K. U. (1998) Suppression of protein synthesis in brain during hibernation involves inhibition of protein initiation and elongation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 95, 14 511–14 516.
Hashimoto, M., Gao, B., Kikuchi-Utsumi, K., Ohinata, H. and Osborne, P. G. (2002) Arousal from hibernation and BAT thermogenesis against cold: central mechanism and molecular basis. Journal of Thermal Biology, 27, 503–515.
Hayward, J. and Lyman, C. P. (1967) Nonshivering heat production during arousal from hibernation and evidence for the contribution of brown fat. In K. C. Fisher, A. R. Dawe, C. P. Lyman, E. Schonbaum and F. E. South Jr. (eds), Mammalian Hibernation III, pp. 346–355. New York: Elsevier.
Heller, H. C., Colliver, G. W. and Beard, J. (1977) Thermoregulation during entrance to hibernation. Pflügers Archive, 369, 55–59.
Lyman, C. P. (1948) The oxygen consumption and temperature regulation of hibernating hamsters, Journal of Experimental Zoology, 109, 55–78.
Lyman, C. P. and O’Brien, R. C. (1960) Circulatory changes in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel during the hibernating cycle. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 124, 353–372.
Körtner, G. and Geiser, F. (2000) The temporal organization of daily torpor and hibernation: Circadian and circannual rhythms. Chronobiology International, 17, 103–128.
Koteja, P., Jurczyszyn, M. and Woloszyn, B. W. (2001) Energy balance of hibernating mouse-eared bat Myotis myotis: a study with a TOBEC instrument. Acta Theriologica, 46, 1–12.
Malatesta, M., Zancanaro, C., Baldelli, B. and Gazzanelli, G. (2002) Quantitative ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes constituents in euthermic, hibernating and arousing dormice (Muscardinus avellanarius). Tissue and Cell, 34, 397–405.
Mayer, W. V. (1960) Histological changes during the hibernating cycle in the artic ground squirrel. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 124, 131–154.
Mussachia, X. J. and Volkert, W. A. (1971) Blood gases in hibernating and active ground squirrels: HbO2 affinity at 6 and 38 °C. American Journal of Physiology, 221, 128–130.
Ortmann, S. and Heldmaier, G. (2000) Regulation of body temperature and energy requirements of hibernating Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota). American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 278, R698–R704.
Ouezzani, S. E., Tramu, G. and Rabia, M. (1999) Neuronal activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus of hibernating jerboas (Jaculus orientalis). Neuroscience Letters, 260, 13–16.
Panula, P., Karlstedt, K., Sallmen, T., Peitsaro, N., Kaslin, J., Michelsen, K. A., Anichtchik, O., Kukko-Lukjanov, T. and Lintunen, M. (2000) The histaminergic system in the brain: structural characteristics and changes in hibernation. Journal of Neuroanatomy, 8, 65–74.
Pitrosky, B., Delagrange, P., Rettori, M. C. and Pevet, P. (2003) S22153, a melatonin antagonist, dissociates different aspects of photoperiodic responses in Syrian hamsters. Behavioural Brain Research, 138, 145–152.
Popov, V. I., Bocharova, L. S. and Bragin, A. G. (1992) Repeated changes of dendritic morphology in the hippocampus of ground squirrels in the course of hibernation. Neuroscience, 48, 45–51.
Sallmen, T., Lozada, A. F., Beckman, A. L. and Panula, P. (2003) Intrahippocampal histamine delays arousal from hibernation. Brain Research, 966, 317–320.
Schleucher, E. (2001) Heterothermia in pigeons and doves reduces energetic costs. Journal of Thermal Biology, 26, 287–293.
Strumwasser, F. (1960) Some physiological principles governing hibernation in Citellus beecheyi. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 124, 285–320.
Wang, L. (1987) Mammalian hibernation. In B. W. W. Groot and G. J. Morris (eds), Effects of Low Temperatures on Biological Systems. London: Edward Arnold.
Wang, L. C. H. and Hudson, J. W. (1971) Temperature regulation in normothermic and hibernating eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (Part A), 38, 59–90.
Yu, E. Z., Hallenbeck, J. M., Cai, D. and McCarron, R. M. (2002) Elevated arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene expression in medial habenular and suprachiasmatic nuclei of hibernating ground squirrels. Molecular Brain Research, 102, 9–17.
Zimmer, M. B. and Milson, R. (2002) Ventilatory pattern and chemosensitivity in unanesthetized, hypothermic ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). Respiratory Physiology and Neurology, 133, 49–63.