Environment: understanding atmospheric and ocean flows
Environment: understanding atmospheric and ocean flows

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Environment: understanding atmospheric and ocean flows

Acknowledgements

This free course was written by Professor Mark Brandon and Dr Tamsin Edwards. It was first published in 2010 and updated in January 2019.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources. Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders. If any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this free course:

Images

Course image: Phil Dolby. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Figure 1: © WWF Global. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

Figure 2: © Daniel J Cox / Getty Images

Figure 3: © AMAP

Figure 5: MacDonald et al. (2005) Recent climate change in the Arctic, Science of the Total Environment, Vol 342 Issue 1-3, 15 April 2005. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Inc.

Figure 6: Courtesy of Mark Brandon;

Figure 7b: Publisher unknown.

Figure 8: Taken from: http://www.theoildrum.com/node/3636/305647

Figure 9: Courtesy AMAP

Figure 10a: ©Nanna B. Karlsson / University of Copenhagen

Figure 10b: © American Museum of Natural History

Figure 11: © Hong, S. et al. (1994) Greenland ice evidence of hemispheric lead pollution two millenia ago by Greek & Roman civilisations, Science, Vol 265, 23 Sep 1994;

Figure 13a: Autopilot / https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EPICA_temperature_plot.svg This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Figure 13b: Publisher unknown.

Figure 14: Hannes Grobe/AWI / https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Northern_icesheet_hg.png This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Figure 18: Luthi, D., Le Floch, M., Bereiter, B., Blunier, T., Barnola, J.-M., Siegenthaler, U., Raynaud, D., Jouzel, J., Fischer, H., Kawamura, K. and Stocker, T.F. (2008) ‘High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present’, Nature, vol. 453, pp. 379–82.

Figure 20: Opiola jerzy. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Figure 22: National Snow and Ice Data Center. https://nsidc.org/

Figure 23: Turney, C.S.M. and Brown, H. (2007) Quaternary Science Reviews, with permission from Elsevier inc.

Figure 25: Yang D., et al., (2002) 'Siberian Lena River Hydrologic Regime and Recent Change', Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, No. D23, 4694.

Figure 26: AMAP

Figure 29: © NASA

Figure 30: © Global Outlook for Ice & Snow / United Nations Environment Programme 2007 / Courtesy of UNEO

Figure 31: McDonald et al. (2005), 'Recent Climate Change in the Arctic', Science of the Total Environment, Vol.342 Issue 1-3 15th April 2005 Reprinted with permission of Elsevier Inc.

Figure 33: © Image taken by Todd Paris University of Alaska Fairbanks

Figure 34: © NASA

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

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