from The Open University
Alternatively you can skip the navigation by pressing 'Enter'.
Secret History Of... Deptford High StTuesday, 21st April 2015 20:00 - BBC FourHow did the "Oxford Street of South London" come to be one of the poorest shopping streets in modern London? Read more: The Secret History Of Our Streets - Deptford High Street
Secret History Of... Deptford High StWednesday, 22nd April 2015 02:00 - BBC Four
Thinking Allowed: The Ethnography Award winner 2015Wednesday, 22nd April 2015 16:00 - BBC Radio 4
Christopher Plummer on King LearThursday, 23rd April 2015 20:00 - Sky Arts 1 HD
Thinking Allowed: The Ethnography Award 'Shortlist' 2015Available until Friday, 15th April 2016 10:30This week's Thinking Allowed hosts a special programme dedicated to academic research in ethnography. Read more: Thinking Allowed: The Ethnography Award 'Shortlist' 2015
A History of Ideas - Descartes Cogito Ergo SumAvailable until Thursday, 14th April 2016 08:30
A History of Ideas - Erving Goffman's Performed SelfAvailable until Thursday, 14th April 2016 08:15
Thinking Allowed: The Ethnography Award 'Shortlist' 2015Available until Friday, 15th April 2016 09:45
What is this political space we call 'immigration'?Four frames white people in the UK use to understand immigration. Read more: What is this political space we call 'immigration'?
Take the photographic memory testCan you capture scenes just by looking at them? Find out with our photographic memory test. Launch now: Take the photographic memory test
Introduction to bookkeeping and accountingThis free course Introduction to bookkeeping and accounting provides an introduction to the... Try: Introduction to bookkeeping and accounting now
Succeed with maths – Part 1[BETA] If you feel that maths is a mystery that you want to unravel then this short 8-week course... Try: Succeed with maths – Part 1 now
This unit explains the general principles of signal transduction and specifically, how...
This unit explains the general principles of signal transduction and specifically, how even the simplest organisms can detect and respond to events in their ever-changing environment.
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
- define and use each of the terms printed in bold in the text.
- understand the basic principles of signal transduction mechanisms, in particular the concepts of response specificity, signal amplitude and duration, signal integration and intracellular location;
- give examples of different types of extracellular signals and receptors, and explain their functional significance;
- describe the mechanisms by which different receptors may be activated by their respective ligands;
- describe and give examples of the structure and properties of the major components of signal transduction pathways;
- understand and give examples of the role of protein binding domains in the specific interactions between signalling molecules;
- understand and give examples of how signalling pathways triggered by different ligands are integrated within a cell to give a specific functional response.
- Current section: Introduction
- Learning outcomes
- 1 General principles of signal transduction
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Extracellular signals can act locally or at a distance
- 1.3 Most receptors are on the cell surface
- 1.4 Cellular responses are diverse
- 1.5 Signal transduction mechanisms
- 1.6 Signalling proteins can act as molecular switches
- 1.7 Localization of signalling proteins
- 1.8 Protein–protein interactions in signal transduction
- 1.9 Summary
- 2 Receptors and their ligands
- 3 Intracellular signalling components
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Trimeric G proteins
- 3.3 Lipid-modifying enzymes
- 3.4 Second messengers
- 3.5 Monomeric G proteins
- 3.6 Protein kinases
- 3.7 Protein phosphatases
- 3.8 Activation of transcription factors
- 3.9 Summary
- 4 Glucose metabolism: an example of integration of signalling pathways
- Next steps
Even the simplest organisms can detect and respond to events in their ever-changing environment. Similarly, within a multicellular organism, cells are surrounded by an extracellular environment from which signals are received and responded to. Extracellular events are decoded and transmitted to relevant parts of individual cells by way of a series of activation/deactivation steps involving many intracellular molecules. This relay of information along molecular pathways is called signal transduction; it is sometimes also simply referred to as ‘signalling’.
The molecular models shown in this chapter were produced using the Brookhaven protein data base (pdb) files indicated in the figure legends. These files can be downloaded, viewed and manipulated using a suitable molecular viewing programme, such as Viewerlite tm.
This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course S377.