Resource 1: The fundamental duties of citizens in India

It shall be the duty of every citizen of India:

  • a.To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
  • b.To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
  • c.To uphold and protect the Sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
  • d.To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
  • e.To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  • f.To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
  • g.To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
  • h.To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  • i.To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
  • j.To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement
(Source: Home Department, Govt of Bihar, undated)

Resource 2: Involving all